Definition of enim
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Orthography ID = 2019512
1.
LNS
enim
comp. of e for pronom. stem i, and nam
conjunction
  1. truly, certainly, to be sure, indeed, in fact: Ch
  2. certainly
  3. I did order you to be called
  4. Th
  5. Tr
  6. nothing truly
Abbreviations
enim, conj. [comp. of e for pronom. stem i, and nam], a demonstrative corroborative particle. (Its position is regularly after the first word, or the first two or more closely connected words in the sentence; only in the comic writers sometimes at the beginning. Put after est in the fourth place: in eo est enim illud, Cic. Off. 1, 20, 67: ab omnibus est enim, etc., id. Deiot. 13, 37; al., see below. Put after quoque: id quoque enim traditur, Liv. 2, 18; 3, 50; 23, 12; 27, 22; 30, 1; 33, 30; 36, 27; but not in Cicero, v. Madv. ad Cic. Fin. 2, 33, 108, p. 325.

—Sometimes it divides an apparent compound: quotus enim quisque, Tac. Or. 26 fin.) To corroborate a preceding assertion, like equidem, certe, vero; hence freq. connected with these particles, esp. with vero (v. under B.), truly, certainly, to be sure, indeed, in fact: Ch. Te uxor aiebat tua Me vocare. St. Ego enim vocari jussi, certainly, I did order you to be called, Plaut. Cas. 2, 4, 2: ornanda est enim dignitas domo, Cic. Off. 1, 39, 139: in his est enim aliqua obscuritas, in fact, indeed, id. Tusc. 1, 32, 78: ille (Dumnorix) enim revocatus resistere ac se manu defendere coepit, in fact, indeed, Caes. B. G. 5, 7, 8: tum M. Metilius, id enim ferendum esse negat, it was really not to be endured, Liv. 22, 25: enim istaec captio est, this is clearly a trick, Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 36: enim me nominat, positively he mentions my name, id. Trin. 5, 2, 10: enim non ibis nunc vicissim, nisi scio, you shall positively not go, id. Pers. 2, 2, 54; id. Capt. 3, 4, 60; cf. id. Most. 5, 2, 12: Th. Quid tute tecum? Tr. Nihil enim, nothing truly, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 24; so, nihil enim, Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 22; id. Hec. 5, 4, 10; cf.: enim nihil, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 51: Pa. Quid metuis? Se. Enim ne nosmet perdiderimus uspiam, id. Mil. 2, 5, 19: tua pol refert enim, id. Stich. 4, 2, 36: certe enim hic nescio quis loquitur, id. Am. 1, 1, 175: certe enim, id. ib. 2, 2, 26; id. As. 3, 3, 24; Ter. And. 3, 2, 23.

—So too in ironical or indignant discourse: tu enim repertu's Philocratem qui superes veriverbio! you indeed! Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 36: ex his duo sibi putant concedi: neque enim quisquam repugnat, Cic. Ac. 2, 13, 41 Goer.; cf. id. Mil. 3, 8; id. Deiot. 12, 33 sq.; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 13; id. Phil. 7, 8; Liv. 7, 32; 34, 7; Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 44 al.: non assequimur. Isti enim videlicet Attici nostri quod volunt, assequuntur, Cic. Brut. 84, 288; so (with videlicet), id. Font. 9, 19; id. Cat. 2, 6, 12: Ca. Faxo haut tantillum dederis verborum mihi. Me. Nempe enim tu, credo, me imprudentem obrepseris, yes, indeed, I believe you are trying to take me in, Plaut. Trin. 1, 2, 23.

— Strengthened by vero, and combined with it into one word, enimvēro (unlike enim, usually beginning the sentence), yes indeed, yes truly, of a truth, to be sure, certainly, indeed: enimvero Chremes nimis graviter cruciat adulescentulum, Ter. Heaut. 5, 5, 1: enimvero, inquit Crassus, mirari satis non queo, etc., Cic. de Or. 1, 36; Liv. 5, 25; 1, 51 fin.: postridie mane ab eo postulo, ut, etc.: ille enimvero negat, and of a truth, he denies it, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 66; so, ille enimvero, id. ib. 2, 5, 39; Liv. 3, 35 fin.: hic enimvero, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 60: enimvero iste, id. ib. 2, 3, 25.

—In corroborating replies (cf. certe, I. A. 2.): Me. Ain vero? So. Aio enimvero, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 188; cf. id. Pers. 2, 2, 2: Sy. Eho, quaeso, an tu is es? Ch. Is enim vero sum, id. Trin. 4, 2, 145: Al. Tun' te abisse hodie hinc negas? Am. Nego enimvero, id. Am. 2, 2, 127; id. As. 3, 3, 98; id. Am. 1, 1, 254: Pa. Incommode hercle. Ch. Immo enimvero infeliciter, Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 37.

—And in ironical or indignant discourse: Da. Ubi voles, arcesse. Si. Bene sane: id enimvero hic nunc abest, that, to be sure, is wanting here as yet, Ter. And. 5, 2, 7; id. Phorm. 3, 1, 1: enimvero ferendum hoc quidem non est, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 26; Liv. 43, 1; cf. id. 6, 14; 25, 41; 27, 30; 33, 46; 34, 58. Transf. To prove or show the grounds of a preceding assertion, for: haec sunt non nugae; non enim mortualia, Plaut. As. 4, 1, 63: mihi vero omne tempus est ad meos libros vacuum: numquam enim sunt illi occupati, Cic. Rep. 1, 9: quas (geometricas formas) ut vidisset, exclamavisse, ut bono essent animo, videre enim se hominum vestigia, id. ib. 1, 17 et saep.

—In parenthetical sentences: quocirca (dicendum est enim saepius), cum judicaveris, diligere oportet, Cic. Lael. 22, 85; cf. id. Tusc. 2, 24, 58; id. Ac. 2, 7, 22: rumpor et invideo (quid enim non omnia narrem?), etc., Ov. H. 16, 221: di maris et caeli (quid enim nisi vota supersunt?), etc., id. Tr. 1, 2, 1 et saep.

— Sometimes the assertion, the reason for which is given, is to be mentally supplied, Cic. Tusc. 5, 9, 26; cf. id. de Or. 2, 6, 24; id. Leg. 2, 7, 17: Am. Qui istuc potis est fieri, quaeso, ut dicis, jam dudum, modo? Al. Quid enim censes? te ut deludam contra? etc., what then do you think? Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 62; cf. Cic. Tusc. 1, 6, 10; Hor. S. 2, 3, 124; Curt. 5, 8; 10, 2 al.

—So the expression: quid enim dicam? commonly ellipt.: quid enim? qs. for what can be objected to the assertion just made? quid enim de T. Tatio Sabino dicam, Liv. 4, 3, 12: quid enim? fortemne possumus dicere eundem illum Torquatum? Cic. Fin. 2, 22, 72; 2, 28, 93; id. Fam. 5, 15, 2; Lucc. ap. Cic. Fam. 5, 14, 2; Hor. S. 1, 1, 7; 2, 3, 132 et saep.

— To explain a preceding assertion, for instance, namely: Sy. Si futurum est, do tibi operam hanc. Mi. Quomodo? Ut enim, ubi mihi vapulandumst, tu corium sufferas, Plaut. Poen. 4, 2, 33; Sc Metuo maxime. Pa. Quid metuis? Sc. Enim ne nos nosmet perdiderimus, id. Mil. 2, 5, 19: Lu. Di me perdant, si bibi, Si bibere potui. Pa. Qui jam? Lu. Quia enim obsorbui, why because, id. ib. 3, 2, 21; id. Am. 2, 2, 34; id. Capt. 4, 2, 104; id. Cas. 2, 6, 33; Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 14: quod enim, App. M. 9, p. 228, 16: non igitur videtur nec frumentarius ille Rhodios nec hic aedium venditor celare emptores debuisse. Neque enim id est celare, quicquid reticeas; sed cum, etc., Cic. Off. 3, 13 fin.: antiquissimam sententiam, tum omnium populorum et gentium consensu comprobatam sequor. Duo sunt enim divinandi genera, etc., id. Div. 1, 6, 11; cf. id. de Imp. Pomp. 2, 6. See Hand, Turs. II. p. 374-409.
 
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