Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary Abbreviations




The dates are given on the authority of Teuffel, in his History of Roman Literature; but those marked (?) are doubtful or conjectural.


a. or act., active, -ly. fin. or ad fin., at the end. opp., opposed to, opposite, -tion.
abbrev., abbreviated, -tion. finit., finite (opp. to infinitive). orig., originally.
abl., ablative. foll., following. p., page.
absol. or abs., absolute, -ly, i. e. without case or adjunct. fr., from. P. a., participal adjective.
abstr., abstract. Fr., French. part., participle.
acc., accusative or according. fragm., frgm., or fr., fragmenta. partit., partitive.
access., accessory. freq. or fr., frequentative or frequent, -ly. pass., passive, -ly, or passage.
ad loc. or ad h. l., ad locum or ad hunc locum. fut., future. patr., patronymic.
adj., adjective, -ly. gen., genitive or general. per., period.
adv., adverb, -ial, -ially; or adversus. geog., geography, -ical. perf., perfect.
agric. or agricult., agricultural. Germ., German. perh., perhaps.
a. h. v., ad hanc vocem. Goth., Gothic. pers., personal, -ly.
al., alii or alia, others or other. gr. or gram., grammar, -ian, -atical, grammatici. philos., philosophy, -ical, -ically, -opher.
amplif., amplificative. Gr. Greek. pl. or plur., plural.
analog., analogous, -ly. h., hence. pleon., pleonastically.
antiq., antiquities. h. l., hic locus (this passage). plqpf., plusquamperfectum.
ap., apud (in). h.v., h. vv., this word, these words. plur. tant., used only in the plural.
appel., appellative. Heb., Hebrew. poet., poetical, -ly.
append. or app., appendix. hibr., hybrid. polit., political, -ly.
Arab., Arabic. hist., history, -ian. posit. or pos., positive.
archit., architecture, -tural. ib., ibidem. poss., possessive.
art., article. id., idem. praef., praefatio.
aug., augmentative. i. e., id est. praep., preposition.
Aug., Augustan. i. q., idem quod. preced., preceding.
c., cum (with). imper., imperative. pregn., pregnant, -ly.
c. c., coupled with. imperf., imperfect. prep., preposition.
cf., confer (compare). impers., impersonal, -ly. pres., present.
chh., church. inanim., inanimate. prob., probably.
class., classic, -al. in bon. part., in bonam partem. prol., prologus.
Cod., Codex (MS). in mal. part., in malam partem. pron., pronoun.
collat., collateral. inch., inchoative, inceptive. prooem., prooemium.
collect., collective, -ly. indecl., indeclinable. prop., proper, -ly, in a proper sense.
com., commonly, comicus, comic, or in comedy. indef., indefinite. prov. or proverb., proverbial, -ly.
comm. or c., common gender. indic., indicative. qs., quasi.
commentt., commentators. inf., infinitive. q. v., quod videas.
comp., compare or comparative. init., in., or ad init., at the beginning. rad., radical or root.
compd., compound. inscrr., inscriptions. rar., rare, -ly.
concr., concrete. intens., intensive. ref., refer, -ence.
conj., conjunction, conjunctive, or conjugation. interrog., interrogative, -tion. rel., relative or reliquiae.
constr., construed, -ction. intr., intransitive. respect., respectûs.
contr., contracted, contraction, or contrary. Ital., Italian. rhet., rhetoric, -al; in rhetoric.
corresp., corresponding. JCtus., juris consultus. Rom., Roman.
dat., dative. jurid., juridical. saep., saepe.
decl., declension. kindr., kindred. saepis., saepissime.
demonstr. or dem., demonstrative. l., lege or lectio. sc., scilicet.
dep., deponent. l. c. or l. l., loco citato or laudato, in the place already cited. s. h. v., sub hac voce.
deriv., derived, -ative, -ation. lang., language. signif., signifies, -cation.
diff., differs or different. Lat., Latin. simp., simple.
dim., diminutive. leg., legit, legunt. Span., Spanish.
dissyl., dissyllable, -abic. lex., lexicon. specif., specifically.
distr., distributive. lit., literal, in a literal sense. sq., sequens; sqq., sequentes (and the following).
dub., doubtful. Lith., Lithuanian. subj., subjunctive.
eccl., ecclesiastical. m. or masc., masculine. subject. or subj., subject, subjective. -ly.
ed., editio or editor. math., mathematics, -ical. subst., substantive, -ly.
e. g., exempli gratiâ. med., medio (in the middle). suff., suffix.
ellipt., elliptical, -ly. medic., medical or medicine. sup., superlative or supine.
elsewh., elsewhere. metaph., metaphorical, -ly. syll., syllable.
epic., epicene. meton., by metonymy. syn., synonym, -ymous.
epit., epitaph. mid. or med., medial; in a middle or reflexive sense. sync., syncopated.
equiv., equivalent. milit., military, in military affairs. tab., tabula (table, plate).
esp., especially. MS., manuscript; MSS. manuscripts. temp. tense or temporal.
etc., et cetera. n. or neutr. neuter. term., terminus.
etym. etymology, -ical. n. pr. or nom. propr., nomen proprium. trag., tragicus, tragic, or in tragedy.
euphon., euphonic, -ny. naut., nautical. trans., translated, -tion.
ex., exs., example, examples. neg., negative, -ly. transf., transferred.
expl., explanation, explained. no., numero. trisyl., trisyllable, -abic.
express., expression. nom., nominative. trop., in a tropical or figurative sense.
ext., externa. num. or numer., numeral. t. t., technical term.
extr., extremo (at the end). obj. or object., object, objective, -ly. usu., usual, -ly.
f. or fem., feminine. obl., oblique. usu., usual, -ly.
fig., figure, -ative, -atively. om., omit. v., verb, vide, or vox.
onomat., onomatopoeia. v. h. v., vide hanc vocem.
var. lect., varia lectio (different reading.
vb., verb.
voc., vocative.

* A star before a word denotes that it is found but once; before a meaning, that the meaning is found but once; and before an author's name, that the word is used but once in his writings.

† This denotes that the word to which it is prefixed is borrowed from the Greek.

†† These indicate that a word is borrowed from some other language than the Greek.

‡ This shows that a word is found only in inscriptions, or in the old grammarians or lexicographers.

Words enclosed in brackets, at the beginning of articles, relate to etymology; elsewhere, are of questionable authenticity.

Words italicized in the citations have been supplied by the conjecture of editors.


Used in editing this work, with the abbreviations by which they are cited. (Only the most important titles are mentioned; the citations of other works are so full as to be intelligible without special explanation.)

Abdy and Walker, J. T. Abdy and B. Walker, editors of the Commentaries of Gaius, Cambridge, 1870.

B. and K., J. G. Baiter and C. L. Kayser, editors of Cicero's works.

Bach, E. C. C., editor of the Metamorphoses of Ovid.

Baumg.-Crus., D. C. G. Baumgarten-Crusius, editor of Ovid, Livy, and Suetonius.

Benfey, Theod., Griechischer Wurzellexicon, Berlin, 1839-1842.

Bentl., Richard Bentley, editor of Horace, Cambridge, 1711; of Terence and Phædrus, Cambridge, 1726, and of Manilius, London, 1739.

Bonn., Edward Bonnell, editor of Quintilian.

Bopp, Francis, Glossarium Comparativum Linguae Sanscritae, 3d ed., Berlin, 1867.

Bramb., W. Brambach, Aids to Latin Orthography, translated by W. G. McCabe, New York, 1877.

Brix, Julius, editor of Plays of Plautus.

Büch., F. Bücheler, editor of Petronius, etc.

Bünem., J. L. Bünemann, editor of Lactantius.

Burm., P. Burmann, editor of Vergil, Ovid, etc.

Burm., P. Burmann (Jun.), editor of Claudian, Propertius, and Anthologia Latina.

Buttm., Philip Buttmann, Lexilogus, etc.

Coningt., John Conington, editor of Vergil and Persius (the 10th and 12th bks. of the Aeneid edited by H. Nettleship, and the Persius published under his care).

Corss., W. Corssen.

Corss., Ausspr., Ueber Aussprache, Vocalismus und Betonung der Lateinischen Sprache, 2d ed., 1868.

Corss., Beitr., Kritische Beiträge zur Lateinischen Formenlehre, 1863.

Corss., Nachtr., Kritische Nachträge zur Lateinischen Formenlehre, 1866.

Cruq., Jacobus Cruquius, editor of Cicero's Pro Milone and of Horace.

Curt., Georg Curtius.

Curt., Gr. Etym., Grundzüge der Griechischen Etymologie, 4th ed., 1873.

Dict. Antiq., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, edited by Wm. Smith, Ph. D., and Chas. Anthon, LL. D.

Dietsch, Rudolphus, editor of Sallust and Nepos.

Dillenb., W. Dillenburger, editor of Horace and Tacitus.

Dint., B. Dinter, editor of Cæsar.

Dober., A. Doberenz, editor of Cæsar.

Doed., Ludwig Doederlein, editor of Horace and Tacitus.

Doed., Lat. Syn., Lateinische Synonymik und Etymologie.

Don., Aelius Donatus, commentator on Terence and Vergil, of the fourth century.

Don., Ti. Claudius Donatus, commentator on Vergil, contemporary with the foregoing.

Donald., J. W. Donaldson, Latin Grammar, Varronianus.

Donat., vide Don.

Draeg., A. Draeger, editor of Tacitus.

Draeg., Hist. Syn., Historische Syntax der Lateinischen Sprache.

Drak., Arnold Drakenborch, editor of Livy, Silius Italicus, etc.

Ellendt, Friedrich, editor of Cicero's De Oratore and Brutus.

Ellis, Robinson, editor of Catullus.

Ernest., J. A. Ernesti, editor of Cicero, Tacitus, and Suetonius.

Ernest., A. W. Ernesti, editor of Livy, Leipsic, 1827.

Eyssen., Franciscus Eyssenhardt, editor of Ammianus Marcellinus, Berlin, 1871.

Fabretti, A., Corpus Inscriptionem Italicarum et Glossarium Italicum, Turin, 1867.

Fick, A., Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Indogermanischen Sprachen.

Fischer, Gustavus, Latin Grammar, New York, 1876.

Fleck., Alfred Fleckeisen, editor of Plautus and Terence.

Forbig., Albert Forbiger, editor of Vergil.

Forcel., Facciolati et Forcellini Lexicon totius Latinitatis, new edition by Fr. F. Corradini, Padua, 1859-78: A-Phoenix.

Fritzsche, A. T. H., editor of the Satires of Horace.

Georg., K. E. Georges, Lateinisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch.

Gerber and Greef, A Gerber and A. Greef, Lexicon Taciteum, Leipsic, 1877, 1878.

Gerl. or Gerlach, F. D. Gerlach, editor of Sallust, of Tacitus's Germania, and of Nonius Marcellus.

Gesenius, W., Hebrew Lexicon, transl. from the Latin by Edward Robinson, D.D.

Gesn., J. M. Gesner, editor of Pliny the Younger

Gierig, G. E., editor of the Metamorphoses of Ovid and of Pliny the Younger.

Gildersleeve, B. L., editor of Persius.

Gronov. or Gronovius, I. F. Gronovius, editor of Plautus, Livy, and Tacitus, and author of Obss. Libri iv.

Gronov. or Gronovius, Abraham Gronovius, editor of Justin, Tacitus, et.

Grotefend, Aug., Lateinische Grammatik.

Grotefend, Georg Friedrich, Altitalienische Dialecte.

Haas., F. Masse editor of Seneca.

Habicht, E. C., Lateinische Synonymik, Lemgo, 1829.

Halm, Karl, editor of Cicero's Select Orations, of Nepos, Tacitus, Quintilian, and Velleius Paterculus.

Hand, Turs., F. Hand, Tursellinus seu de Particulis Latinis Commentarii (an incomplete work: Ab—Puta).

Heind., L. F. Heindorf, editor of the Satires of Horace.

Herm., K. F. Hermann, editor of Juvenal and Persius.

Hertz, Martin, editor of Livy and Aulus Gellius.

Heyn. or Heyne, C. G. Heyne, editor of Tibullus and Vergil.

Hildebrand, G. F., editor of Appuleius.

Hint., Valentin Hintner, Lateinische Etymologie, Brixen, 1873.

Hoffm., E. Hoffman, Die Construction der Lateinischen Zeit-Partikeln, 3d ed., 1873.

Hofm., F. Hofmann editor of Cicero's Select Letters.

Huschke, Ph. Edw., Jurisprudentiae AntejusUinianae quae supersunt, 3d ed., Leipsic, 1874.

Jahn, J. C., editor of Vergil and Horace.

Jahn, Otto, editor of Persius, Juvenal, etc.

Jan, L., editor of Pliny the Elder.

K. and H., 0. Keller and A. Holder, editors of Horace, Leipsic, 1864; editio minor 1878.

Keil, Heinrich, editor of Pliny the Younger, and of the Grammatici Latini.

Kennedy, B. H., author of the Public School Latin Grammar, 3d ed., London, 1875.

Key, T. Hewitt, Latin Grammar, London, 1856.

Kiepert, H., Lehrbuch der Alten Geographie, Berlin, 1877, 1878.

Kiessl., A. Kiessling, editor of Seneca Rhetor, Leipsic, 1872.

Klotz, B., Handwörterbuch dcr Lateinischen Sprache, Braunschweig, 1858.

Kopp, U. F., editor of Martianus Capella, Frankfurt, 1836.

Kram., Friedrich Kramer, editor of Cæsar.

Krebs, Antibarb., J. Ph. Krebs, Antibarbarus der Lateinischen Sprache, 5th ed. by Allgayer, 1876.

Kühner, Raphael, editor of Cicero's Tusculanae and author of Ausführliche Grammatik der Lateinischen Sprache, Hannover 1877, 1878.

Lachm., Karl Lachmann, editor of Lucilius, Lucretius, Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, etc.

Lamb., D. Lambinus, editor of Plautus, Lucretius, Cicero, and Horace.

Lor. or Lorenz, A. O. F. Lorenz, editor of Plays of Plautus.

Lübb., E. Lübbert, Beiträge zur Tempus- und Modus-Lehre des Aelteren Lateins.

Lübk., F. Lübker, Real-Lexicon des Classischen Alterthums.

Madv., J. N. Madvig, editor of Cicero's De Finibus. Cato Major, Laelius, and Select Orations, author of Emendationes Livianae, Adversaria Critica, etc.

Madv., Gram., Latin Grammar, edited by Thacher.

Mann., Conrad Mannert, Geographie der Griechen und Römer.

Mayor, J. E. B., editor of Juvenal, 3d ed.. london, 1869—78.

Merguet, H., Lexicon zu den Reden des Cicero Vol. I., Jena, 1877.

Merk., Rudolph Merkel, editor of Ovid, Leipsic, 1852, 1853; Metamorphoses in new ed., 1875.

Momms., Theodor Mommsen, editor of the Digesta, and of the Corpus Inscriptionutn Latinarum.

Momms., Röm. Gesch., Römische Geschichte.

Müll., Karl Ottfried Müller, editor of Festus and of Varro de Lingu^acirc; Latinâ.

Müll., Lucian Muller, editor of Lucilius, Catullus, Tibullus. Propertius, and Horace; and author of Orthographiae et Prosodiae Latinae Summarium, Petropoli, 1878.

Munro, H. A. J., editor of Lucretius and author of Criticisms and Elucidations of Catullus.

Neue, Formenl., Friedrich Neue, Formenlehre der Lateinischen Sprache, 2d ed., 1875 and 1877.

Nieb. Röm. Gesch., B. Niebuhr. Römische Geschichte.

Nipp. or Nipperd., Karl Nipperdey, editor of Nepos and Tacitus.

Orell., J. G. Orelli, editor of Cicero, Horace, Tacitus, etc.

Osann, Friedrich, editor of Fragmenta Appulei de Orthographiâ, and of Cicero's De Re Publicâ.

Oud., F. Oudendorp, editor of Cæsar and of Appuleius.

Paley, F. A., editor of Propertius, 3d ed. 1872.

Pauck., C. Paucker, Spicilegium Addendorum Lexicis Latinis, Mitau. 1875.

Peter, Hermann, editor of Ovid's Fasti, Leipsic, 1874.

Pott, Aug. Friedrich, Etymologische Forschungen, Lemgo, 1833, 2d and greatly enlarged ed., 1869—76.

Queck, Gustavus, editor of Statius.

Ramshorn, Ludwig, Lateinische Grammatik, Leipzig, 1830.

Ramshorn, Syn., Lateinische Synonymik, Leipzig, 1831.

Rib., Otto Ribbeck, editor of Vergil and of the Scenicae Romanorum Poësis Fragmenta, and author of a Brief Treatise on the Latin Particles.

Riese, Alexander. editor of Ovid, Leipsic, 1871—1874.

Ritschl, Friedrich, editor of Plautus; continued by G. Loewe, H. Goetz, and F. Schoell.

Ritschl Opusc., Opuscula Philologica.

Ritt., F. Ritter, editor of Horace and Tacitus.

Rob, or Roby, H. J. Roby, A Grammar of the Latin Language from Plautus to Suetonius.

Rose and Strübing, Valentin Rose and H. Müler-Strübing, editors of Vitruvius.

Roth, C. L., editor of Suetonius.

Rudd., Thomas Ruddiman, author of Grammaticae Latinae Institutiones, edited by Stallbaum, Leipsic, 1823.

Sandars, T. C., editor of the Institutes of Justinian, London, 1874.

Schmalfeld, Dr. Fr., Lateinische Synonymik, Altenburg, 1869.

Schmid, F. E. T., editor of the Epistles of Horace.

Schneid., J. G. Schneider, editor of the Scriptores Rei Rusticae Veteres.

Schneid., J. K. L. Schneider, Ausführliche Grammatik der Lateineschen Sprache, 1819—21.

Schneid., F. G. Schneidewin, editor of Martial.

Schwartz, C. G. editor of Pliny the Younger.

Servius, Servius Honoratus, a commentator on Vergil, of the fourth century.

Seyffert, Moritz, editor of Cicero's Tusculanae and Laelius.

Sill., J. Sillig, editor of Pliny's Historia Naturalis.

Struve, K. L., Ueber die Lateinesche Declination und Conjugation.

Teuff., W. Teuffel, Geschichte der Römischen Literatur, 2d ed., 1872; 3d ed., 1877.

Tisch., Constantinus Tischendorf editor of Novum Testamentum Vulgatae Editionis.

Torrini, R. P. F. Gabr., Concordantiae Bibliorum Sacrorum Vulgatae Editionia, Prati, 1861.

Umpf., Franciecus Umpfenbach, editor of Terence, Berlin, 1870.

Uss. or Ussing, J. L. Ussing, editor of Plautus, Hauniae, Vol. I., 1875; Vol. II., 1878.

Vahl., Joannes Vahlen, editor of the Fragments of Ennius, Lucilius, etc.

Van., Alois Vanicek, Griechisch - Lateinisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1877; Fremdwörter im Griechischen und Lateinischen, 1878.

Wagn. or Wagner, J. A. Wagner, editor of Valerius Flaccus.

Wagn. or Wagner, Philip Wagner, editor of Vergil, ed. maj. 1830—1841; ed. min. 1841.

Wagn. or Wagner, W. Wagner, editor of several plays of Plautus and of Terence.

Weisenb., W. Weissenborn, editor of Livy.

Wordsw., John Wordsworth, editor of Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin, Oxford, 1874.

Zumpt, Karl G., editor of Cicero's Orations against Verres, and De Officiis, and of Curtius.

Zumpt, Gram., Latin Grammar. edited by Anthon.