|LATIN AUTHORS CITED IN THIS DICTIONARY,
WITH THE ABBREVIATIONS USED.
|Caesar, C. Julius, Cs.
Cicero, M. Tullius, C.
* But every citation not followed by a reference to another writer is from Cicero.
|Q. Curtius Rufus, Cu.
Q. Horatius Flaccus, H.
D. Iunius Iuvenalis, Iu.
T. Livius, L.
Cornelius Nepos, N.
P. Ovidius Naso, O.
NOTE: There are several abbreviations not listed here, such as Ct. and Cat. which seem to be Catullus and Cato respectively. It is unclear which one is which. See the LNS Abbreviations page for a more complete list of Roman Authors.
|The abbreviation ap. (for apud) maybe read "quoted by". Thus, "Enn. ap. C." means that the passage cited is found in a quotation by Cicero from Ennius.|
absol., absolute, i. e. without object
Angl. Sax., Anglo-Saxon.
cf., confer (compare).
class., classical, i. e. in the best prose.
dem. or demonst., demonstrative.
e. g., exempli gratia (for instance).
etc., et cetera.
f. or fem., feminine.
fin., at the end.
|freq., frequent, frequentative.
i. e., id est
ind. or indic., indicative.
late, in writers after Livy.
meton., by metonymy.
n. or neut., neuter.
old, in writers before Cicero.
|opp., opposed to.
P. or part., participle.
poet., poetical, poetically.
praegn., pregnant, pregnantly.
prop., in a proper or original sense.
res p., res publica.
* An asterisk before a word means that it is not found in use, but is assumed to account for some derived form.
[ ] Remarks in square brackets relate to etymology. Forms printed in capitals are references to the Table of Roots at the end of the volume.
= The sign of equality before a Greek word means that the preceding Latin word is borrowed from that form in Greek.
(...) A form in the vocabulary is enclosed in a parenthesis to show, if a substantive, in the nominative case, that it is used only in other cases; if an adjective, that it is not used in the positive degree; if a verb, that it is not used in the present system. Forms of incorrect orthography, found in some school-books, are enclosed in parentheses, with reference to the correct form.
— A dash in place of the genitive of a substantive, or of one of the principal parts of adverb, indicates that this case or this system is not in classical use.