Definition of atque, ac, adque, at-qui
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y zgo back
Orthography ID = 2005292
1.
LNS
atque
āc
adque
at-qui
et
conjunction
  1. and also, and besides, and even, and
Abbreviations
atque or āc (atque is used before vowels and consonants, ac, in class. lang., only before consonants; v. infra, I.), conj. [at has regularly in the compound atque a continuative, as in atqui it has an adversative force; pr. and further, and besides, and also; cf. in Gr. πρὸς δέ, πρὸς δὲ ἔτι, ἔτι καί, ἔτι δέ, and τὲ καί; v. at init., and for the change of form atque, ac, cf. neque, nec; in MSS. and inscriptions sometimes written adque, and sometimes by confusion at-qui], a copulative particle, and also, and besides, and even, and (indicating a close internal connection between single words or whole clauses; while et designates an external connection of diff. objects with each other, v. et; syn.: et, -que, autem, praeterea, porro, ad hoc, ad haec). In joining single words, which is its most common use. In gen. (The following representation is based on a collection of all the instances of the use of atque and ac in Cic. Imp. Pomp., Phil. 2, Tusc. 1, and Off. 1; in Caes. B. G. 1 and 2; in Sall. C.; and in Liv. 21; and wherever in the account either author or work is not cited, there atque or ac does not occur.) The form atque. Before vowels and h.

—Before a (very freq.): sociorum atque amicorum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6; 3, 7; id. Phil. 2, 13, 33; id. Tusc. 1, 34, 122; Caes. B. G. 1, 2; 1, 18; 1, 26; 2, 14; Sall. C. 5, 8; 7, 5; Liv. 21, 3; 21, 12.

—Before e (very freq.): deposci atque expeti, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 5; 6, 16; 10, 28; id. Phil, 2, 21, 51; 2, 21, 52; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; Caes. B. G. 1, 6; 1, 15; 1, 18; 2, 19; Sall. C. 14, 6; 49, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 37.

—Before i (very freq.): excitare atque inflammare, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 6; 3, 7; 7, 18; id. Phil. 2, 15, 37; 2, 21, 50; id. Tusc. 1, 20, 46; 1, 40, 97; Caes. B. G. 1, 17; 1, 20; 1, 22; 2, 1 bis; Sall. C. 2, 3; 3, 5; 14, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 6; 21, 10.

—Before o (freq. in Cic.): honestissimus atque ornatissimus, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 17; 8, 21; 11, 31; id. Off. 1, 25, 86; 1, 27, 94; Caes. B. G. 1, 40; 2, 14; Sall. C. 10, 6; Liv. 21, 8.

—Before u (very rare), Cic. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7; 5, 11; 6, 15; Caes. B. G. 1, 26; 2, 20; Sall. C. 31, 6; 42, 1.

—Before h (not infreq.): Sertorianae atque Hispaniensis, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 7, 19; id. Tusc. 1, 28, 69; id. Off. 1, 24, 87; Caes. B. G. 1, 19; 2, 9; 2, 10; Sall. C. 6, 1; 12, 2; Liv. 21, 37.

— Before consonants.

—Before b (very rare): Gallorum atque Belgarum, Caes. B. G. 1, 6; so, Cassius atque Brutus, Tac. A. 3, 76.

—Before c (infreq. in Cic., freq. in Sall.): in portubus atque custodiis, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 16; 8, 21; id. Phil. 2, 8, 18; id. Tusc. 1, 18, 42; id. Off. 1, 25, 88; Sall. C. 2, 3; 7, 4; 16, 3; 26, 4; 29, 3.

—Before d (infreq.): superatam esse atque depressam, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 8, 21; id. Phil. 2, 44, 114: id. Off. 1, 6, 19; 1, 25, 85; 1, 33, 119; Sall. C. 4, 1; 20, 7; 20, 10.

—Before f (infreq.): vitiis atque flagitiis, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 30, 72; id. Off. 1, 28, 98; 1, 28, 100; Caes. B. G. 1, 2; Sall. C. 1, 4; 2, 9; 11, 2.

— Before g (very rare): dignitate atque gloria, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 11; 5, 12: virtute atque gloria, Sall. C. 3, 2; 61, 9.

—Before j (very rare): labore atque justitia, Sall. C. 10, 1; 29, 3.

—Before l (rare): hilari atque laeto, Cic. Tusc. 1, 42, 100; id. Off. 1, 19, 64; Sall. C. 14, 3; 21, 2; 28, 4.

—Before m (infreq. in Cic., once in Caes.): multae atque magnae, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 17, 50; id. Phil. 2, 39, 100; id. Off. 1, 29, 103; 1, 31, 110; Caes. B. G. 1, 34; Sall. C. 18, 4; 31, 7; 34, 1; 51, 1.

—Before n (infreq.): adventu atque nomine, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 13; 20, 60; id. Off. 1, 28, 101; Sall. C. 2, 2 bis.

—Before p (infreq. in Cic.): magna atque praeclara, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 11, 31; 16, 48; id. Off. 1, 44, 156; Sall. C. 4, 1; 4, 4; 16, 2; 20, 3.

—Before q (does not occur).

—Before r (rare): se conlegit atque recreavit, Cic. Phil. 2, 24, 58.

— Before s (rare in Cic.): provinciarum atque sociorum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 24, 71; id. Off. 1, 9, 30; 1, 21, 72; Sall. C. 2, 5; 2, 7; 6, 1.

— Before t (infreq.): parietum atque tectorum, Cic. Phil. 2, 28, 69; id. Tusc. 1, 24, 57; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Sall. C. 42, 2; 50, 3; 51, 38.

—Before v (infreq.): gravis atque vehemens, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 9, 25; id. Tusc. 1, 23, 54; Sall. C. 1, 1; 12, 3; 45, 4; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 30.

— The form ac before consonants.

—Before b (very rare): sentientes ac bene meritos, Cic. Off. 1, 41, 149: feri ac barbari, Caes. B. G. 1, 31 and 33.

—Before c (very rare): liberis ac conjugibus, Liv. 21, 30: Romae ac circa urbem, id. 21, 62.

—Before d (freq. in Cic.): periculum ac discrimen, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; 9, 23; 12, 33; id. Tusc. 1, 17, 40; 1, 28, 69; id. Off. 1, 14, 42: usus ac disciplina, Caes. B. G. 1, 40; 2, 31; Sall. C. 5, 4; 5, 8; 28, 1; Liv. 21, 10; 21, 18; 21, 19.

—Before f (infreq.): opima est ac fertilis, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 6, 14; 7, 19; id. Tusc. 1, 1, 2; 1, 27, 66; id. Off. 1, 29, 103: potentissimos ac firmissimos, Caes. B. G. 1, 3; 1, 48; 2, 12; 2, 13: pessuma ac flagitiosissima, Sall. C. 5, 9; Liv. 21, 17; 21, 20.

—Before g (does not occur).

—Before j (very rare): nobilitatis ac juventutis, Cic. Phil. 2, 15, 37.

—Before l (not infreq. in Liv.), Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 9; 23, 66; id. Phil. 2, 22, 54; Caes. B. G. 1, 12; 1, 23; 2, 23; Liv. 21, 13; 21, 14; 21, 35.

—Before m (not infreq. in Cic.): terrore ac metu, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23; 18, 54 bis; 20, 59; id. Tusc. 1, 40, 95; id. Off. 1, 30, 106; Caes. B. G. 1, 39; 2, 14; Sall. C. 2, 4; 10, 1; Liv. 21, 8; 21, 60.

—Before n (not infreq. in Cic.): insedit ac nimis inveteravit, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7: gentes ac nationes, id. ib. 11, 31; 12, 35 bis; id. Phil. 2, 21, 50; id. Tusc. 1, 21, 48; Caes. B. G. 1, 20; 2, 28; Liv. 21, 32.

—Before p (not infreq. in Cic., Caes., and Liv.): celeberrimum ac plenissimum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; 12, 35; 13, 36; id. Phil. 2, 15, 39; id. Tusc. 1, 17, 41; id. Off. 1, 20, 68; Caes. B. G. 1, 18; 1, 20; 2, 13; 2, 19; Sall. C. 5, 9; Liv. 21, 25; 21, 34; 21, 35.

—Before q (does not occur).

—Before r (infreq.): firmamenti ac roboris, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; 8, 21; 15, 45; id. Off. 1, 5, 15; Caes. B. G. 1, 25; Liv. 21, 41; 21, 44.

—Before s (freq. in Cic. and Liv., infreq. in Caes.): vectigalibus ac sociis, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 2, 4; 4, 10; 11, 30; id. Phil. 2, 27, 66; Caes. B. G. 1, 25; 1, 31; 1, 33; 2, 24; Liv. 21, 4; 21, 33 bis; 21, 36.

—Before t (infreq. in Cic., freq. in Liv.): tantis rebus ac tanto bello, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27 bis; 19, 56; 20, 59; Caes. B. G. 1, 26; 1, 39; 2, 6; Liv. 21, 7 ter; 21, 10; 21, 14; 21, 25.

—Before v (not in Cic., only once in Caes. and Sall., but freq. in Liv.): armatos ac victores, Caes. B. G. 1, 40: inconsulte ac veluti etc., Sall. C. 42, 2: opera ac vineae, Liv. 21, 7; 21, 22; 21, 40; 21, 43.

—(So in the phrases treated below: atque adeo, atque alter or alius, atque eccum, atque eo, atque etiam, atque illuc, atque is or hic, atque iterum, atque omnia, atque ut, atque late, atque sic, atque velut, but ac ne, ac si, and ac tamen).

—With simul: Britannorum acies in speciem simul ac terrorem editioribus locis constiterat, Tac. Agr. 35: in se simul atque in Herculem, id. G. 34: suos prosequitur simul ac deponit, id. ib. 30; so, sociis pariter atque hostibus, id. H. 4, 73: innocentes ac noxios juxta cadere, id. A. 1, 48.

—Hence, sometimes syn. with et

—et, ut

—ita, aeque ac; both

—and, as

—so, as well

—as, as well as: hodie sero ac nequiquam voles, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 103 (cf. Cic. Quinct. 25, 79: verum et sero et nequidquam pudet): copia sententiarum atque verborum, Cic. Cael. 19, 45: omnia honesta atque inhonesta, Sall. C. 30, 4: nobiles atque ignobiles, id. ib. 20, 7: caloris ac frigoris patientia par, Liv. 21, 4; 6, 41; Vell. 2, 127: vir bonus et prudens dici delector ego ac tu, Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 32.

— Esp. In a hendiadys: utinam isto animo atque virtute in summā re publicā versari quam in municipali maluisset, with this virtuous feeling, Cic. Leg. 3, 16, 36: de conplexu ejus ac sinu, of his bosom embrace, id. Cat. 2, 10, 22: me eadem, quae ceteros, fama atque invidia vexabat, i. e. invidiosa fama, Sall. C. 3 fin.: clamore atque adsensu, shout of applause, Liv. 21, 3.

— In joining to the idea of a preceding word one more important, and indeed, and even, and especially (v. Kritz ad Sall. J. 4, 3). Absol.: Pa. Nempe tu istic ais esse erilem concubinam? Sc. Atque arguo me etc., yea and I maintain that I etc., Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 66: Ph. Tun vidisti? Sc. Atque his quidem oculis, id. ib. 2, 4, 15: Ps. Ecquid habet is homo aceti in pectore? Ch. Atque acidissimi, id. Ps. 2, 4, 49; so id. Bacch. 3, 6, 9; id. Men. 1, 2, 40: Py. Cognoscitne (ea)? Ch. Ac memoriter, Ter. Eun. 5, 3, 6: Faciam boni tibi aliquid pro istā re ac lubens, and with a good will, id. Heaut. 4, 5, 15: rem difficilem (dii immortales) atque omnium difficillimam, and indeed, Cic. Or. 16, 52: magna diis immortalibus habenda est gratia atque huic ipsi Jovi Statori, etc., and especially, id. Cat. 1, 5, 11: hebeti ingenio atque nullo, and in fact, id. Tusc. 5, 15, 45: ex plurimis periculis et insidiis atque ex mediā morte, and even, id. Cat. 4, 9: fratre meo atque eodem propinquo suo interfecto, and at the same time, Sall. J. 14, 11: intra moenia atque in sinu urbis, id. C. 52, 35.

— With adeo, and that too, and even: intra moenia atque adeo in senatu, Cic. Cat. 1, 2, 5: qui in urbe remanserunt atque adeo qui contra urbis salutem etc., id. ib. 2, 12, 27: insto atque urgeo, insector, posco atque adeo flagito crimen, id. Planc. 19 fin.: non petentem atque adeo etiam absentem, Liv. 10, 5.

—And with autem also added: atque adeo autem quor etc., Ter. Eun. 5, 4, 42.

— With etiam: id jam populare atque etiam plausibile factum est, and also, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 3, 8: ne Verginio commeatum dent atque etiam in custodiā habeant, Liv. 3, 46.

— With the dem. pron. hic, is: negotium magnum est navigare atque id mense Quintili, and besides, and that, and that too, Cic. Att. 5, 12; 1, 14: maximis defixis trabibus atque eis praeacutis, Caes. B. C. 1, 27: Asseres pedum XII. cuspidibus praefixis atque hi maximis ballistis missi, id. ib. 2, 2: duabus missis subsidio cohortibus a Caesare, atque his primis legionum duarum, id. B. G. 5, 15; id. B. C. 3, 70: flumen uno omnino loco pedibus atque hoc aegre transiri potest, id. B. G. 5, 18: ad celeritatem onerandi subductionesque paulo facit humiliores ... atque id eo magis, quod, etc., id. ib. 5, 1; cf. without id (perh. to avoid the repetition of the pron.): quā (sc. virtute) nostri milites facile superabant, atque eo magis, quod, etc., and that the more because etc., id. ib. 3, 8 fin.: dicendi artem aptā trepidatione occultans atque eo validior, Tac. H. 1, 69; 2, 37; id. A. 4, 22; 4, 46.

— In comparisons. Of equality (Rudd. II. p. 94; Zumpt, § 340); with par, idem, item, aequus, similis, juxta, talis, totidem, etc., as: et nota, quod ex hujus modi structurā Graecā (sc. ὅμοιος καί, etc.) frequenter Latini ac et atque in significatione similitudinis accipiunt, Prisc. pp. 1192 and 1193 P.; cf. Gell. 10, 29; Lidd. and Scott, s. v. καί, III.: si parem sententiam hic habet ac formam, Plaut. Mil. 4, 6, 36: quom opulenti loquuntur pariter atque ignobiles, Enn. ap. Gell. 11, 4: Ecastor pariter hoc atque alias res soles, Plaut. Men. 5, 1, 52: pariter nunc operā me adjuves ac re dudum opitulata es, Ter. Phorm. 5, 3, 3: neque enim mihi par ratio cum Lucilio est ac tecum fuit, Cic. N. D. 3, 1, 3: parique eum atque illos imperio esse jussit, Nep. Dat. 3, 5: magistrum equitum pari ac dictatorem imperio fugavit, id. Hann. 5, 3: pariter patribus ac plebi carus, Liv. 2, 33: nam et vita est eadem et animus te erga idem ac fuit, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 24: In hanc argumentationes ex eisdem locis sumendae sunt atque in causam negotialem, Cic. Inv. 2, 23, 70: equi quod alii sunt ad rem militarem idonei, alii ad vecturam ... non item sunt spectandi atque habendi, Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 15; id. L. L. 10, § 74 Mull.: cum ex provinciā populi Romani aequam partem tu tibi sumpseris atque populo Romano miseris, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 19: Modo ne in aequo (jure) hostes apud vos sint ac nos socii, Liv. 39, 37 (exs. with aeque; v. aeque, δ); Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 83 fin.: et simili jure tu ulcisceris patrui mortem atque ille persequeretur fratris sui, si, etc., id. Rab. Perd. 5; id. Phil. 1, 4; id. Agr. 1, 4 fin.: similem pavorem inde ac fugam fore, ac bello Gallico fuerit, Liv. 6, 28; Col. 5, 7, 3: contendant, se juxta hieme atque aestate bella gerere posse, Liv. 5, 6; cf. Drak. ad Liv. 1, 54, 9: faxo eum tali mactatum, atque hic est, infortunio, Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 39; Cic. Vatin. 4, 10: cum totidem navibus atque erat profectus, Nep. Milt. 7, 4.

— Of difference; with alius and its derivv., with dissimile, contra, contrarius, secus, etc., than: illi sunt alio ingenio atque tu, other than, different from, Plaut. Ps. 4, 7, 35 al.; v. the passages under alius, I. B. α: aliter tuum amorem atque est accipis, Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 23 al.; v. the passages under aliter, 1. a.; cf. also aliorsum, II., and aliusmodi: quod est non dissimile atque ire in Solonium, Cic. Att. 2, 3: simulacrum in excelso collocare et, contra atque ante fuerat, ad orientem convertere, id. Cat. 3, 8, 20: vides, omnia fere contra ac dicta sint evenisse, id. Div. 2, 24 fin.; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 46: qui versantur retro, contrario motu atque caelum, id. Rep. 6, 17, 17: membra paulo secus a me atque ab illo partita, id. de Or. 3, 30, 119: cujus ego salutem non secus ac meam tueri debeo, id. Planc. 1 fin. al.; v. contra, contrarius, secus, etc.

— Sometimes, in cases of equality or difference, atque with ut or ac with si (with aliter affirm. Cic. appears to connect only atque ut, not ac si; once, however, non aliter, ac si, Cic. Att. 13, 51; v. aliter, 1. b.): pariter hoc fit atque ut alia facta sunt, Plaut. Am. 4, 1, 11: nec fallaciam Astutiorem ullus fecit poeta atque Ut haec est fabre facta a nobis, id. Cas. 5, 1, 6 sqq.: quod iste aliter atque ut edixerat decrevisset, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 46: et qui suos casus aliter ferunt atque ut auctores aliis ipsi fuerunt, etc., id. Tusc. 3, 30, 73: si mentionem fecerint, quo aliter ager possideretur atque ut ex legibus Juliis, id. Att. 2, 18, 2; 16, 13, c; cf. Wopk. Lect. Tull. 1, 15, p. 118; Dig. 43, 13, 11: Egnatii absentis rem ut tueare, aeque a te peto ac si mea negotia essent, just as if, Cic. Fam. 13, 43: tu autem similiter facis ac si me roges, etc., id. N. D. 3, 3, 8: reliquis officiis, juxta ac si meus frater esset, sustentavit, id. Post. Red. in Sen. 8, 20: quod dandum est amicitiae, large dabitur a me non secus ac si meus esset frater, id. Mur. 4 fin.: haec sunt, tribuni, consilia vestra, non, hercule, dissimilia, ac si quis, etc., Liv. 5, 5 fin. al.

— More rare with nimis, in partem, pro eo, etc.; in Plaut. also with mutare or demutare = aliud esse: nimis bellus, atque ut esse maxume optabam, locus, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 73: haud centensumam Partem dixi atque, otium rei si sit, possim expromere, id. Mil. 3, 1, 168: sane quam pro eo ac debui graviter molesteque tuli, just as was my duty, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5: debeo sperare, omnes deos, qui huic urbi praesident, pro eo mihi, ac mereor, relaturos gratiam esse, Cic. Cat. 4, 2: pro eo, ac si concessum sit, concludere oportebit argumentationem, id. Inv. 1, 32, 54: non possum ego non aut proxime atque ille aut etiam aeque laborare, nearly the same as he, id. Fam. 9, 13, 2: neque se luna quoquam mutat atque uti exorta est semel, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 118: num quid videtur demutare atque ut quidem Dixi? id. Mil. 4, 3, 37.

— Sometimes the word indicating comparison (aeque, tantopere, etc.) is to be supplied from the connection (in the class. per. perh. used only once by Cassius in epist. style): nebula haud est mollis atque hujus est, Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 21: quem esse amicum ratus sum atque ipsus sum mihi, id. Bacch. 3, 6, 20: quae suco caret atque putris pumex, Priap. 32, 7 (Mull., est putusque): digne ac mereor commendatus esse, Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 13; Dig. 2, 14, 4; 19, 2, 54.

— Poet. or in post-Aug. prose with comparatives (for quam), than: amicior mihi nullus vivit atque is est, Plaut. Merc. 5, 2, 56: non Apollinis magis verum atque hoc responsum est, Ter. And. 4, 2, 15 Ruhnk.: Illi non minus ac tibi Pectore uritur intimo Flamma, Cat. 61, 172: haud minus ac jussi faciunt, Verg. A. 3, 561: Non tuus hoc capiet venter plus ac meus, Hor. S. 1, 1, 46 Bentl. and Heind. (cf. infra: nihilo plus accipias quam Qui nil portārit): qui peccas minus atque ego, id. ib. 2, 7, 96: Artius atque hedera procera adstringitur ilex, id. Epod. 15, 5; Suet. Caes. 14 Ruhnk.

— In the comparison of two periods of time, most freq. with simul (v. examples under simul); ante- or post-class. with principio, statim: principio Atque animus ephebis aetate exiit, as soon as, Plaut. Merc. 1, 1, 40: judici enim, statim atque factus est, omnium rerum officium incumbit, Dig. 21, 1, 25: quamvis, statim atque intercessit, mulier competierat, ib. 16, 1, 24.

— To connect a negative clause which explains or corrects what precedes; hence sometimes with potius (class.; in Cic. very freq., but rare in the poets), and not, and not rather. Absol.: Decipiam ac non veniam, Ter. Heaut. 4, 4, 6: si fidem habeat, ... ac non id metuat, ne etc., id. Eun. 1, 2, 60: perparvam vero controversiam dicis, ac non eam, quae dirimat omnia, Cic. Leg. 1, 20, 54: quasi nunc id agatur, quis ex tantā multitudine occiderit, ac non hoc quaeratur, eum, etc., id. Rosc. Am. 33: si (mundum) tuum ac non deorum immortalium domicilium putes, nonne plane desipere videare? id. N. D. 2, 6, 17: nemo erat, qui illum reum ac non miliens condemnatum arbitraretur, id. Att. 1, 16: si hoc dissuadere est, ac non disturbare ac pervertere, id. Agr. 2, 37, 101: si res verba desideraret ac non pro se ipsa loqueretur, id. Fam. 3, 2 fin.: hoc te exspectare tempus tibi turpe est ac non ei rei sapientiā tuā te occurrere, Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 6: velut destituti ac non qui ipsi destituissent, Liv. 8, 27; 7, 3 fin.: si mihi mea sententia proferenda ac non disertissimorum, Tac. Or. 1.

— With potius: Quam ob rem scriba deducet, ac non potius mulio, qui advexit? Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 79 (B. and K., et): quis (eum) ita aspexit, ut perditum civem, ac non potius ut importunissimum hostem? id. Cat. 2, 6, 12.

— Pliny the elder commonly employs in this sense atque non, not ac non: concremāsse ea (scrinia) optumā fide atque non legisse, Plin. 7, 25, 26, § 94; 22, 24, 50, § 108; 29, 2, 9, § 29; 27, 9, 55, § 78; 31, 7, 39, § 73 et saep.

— In connecting clauses and beginning periods. In gen., and, and so, and even, and too: Pamph. Antiquam adeo tuam venustatem obtines. Bacch. Ac tu ecastor morem antiquom atque ingenium obtines, And you too, Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 20: atque illi (philosopho) ordiri placet etc., Cic. de Or. 3, 47, 183: Africanus indigens mei? Minime hercle. Ac ne ego quidem illius, And I indeed not, etc., id. Lael. 9, 30; id. Fin. 5, 11, 33: cum versus facias, te ipsum percontor, etc. ... Atque ego cum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, Versiculos, etc., Hor. S. 1, 10, 31: multa quippe et diversa angebant: validior per Germaniam exercitus, etc. ... quos igitur anteferret? ac (i. e. similiter angebat), ne postpositi contumeliā incenderentur, Tac. A. 1, 47: Minime, minime, inquit Secundus, atque adeo vellem maturius intervenisses, Tac. Or. 14: ac similiter in translatione, etc., Quint. 3, 6, 77.

— In adducing new arguments of similar force in favor of any assertion or making further statements about a subject, etc.; cf. Beier ad Cic. Off. 3, 11, 487. Absol.: maxima est enim vis vetustatis et consuetudinis: atque in ipso equo, cujus modo mentionem feci, si, etc., and furthermore, and moreover, Cic. Lael. 19, 68: Atque, si natura confirmatura jus non erit, virtutes omnes tollentur, id. Leg. 1, 15, 42 B. and K.

— Often with etiam: Atque alias etiam dicendi virtutes sequitur, Cic. Or. 40, 139: Atque hoc etiam animadvertendum non esse omnia etc., id. de Or. 2, 61, 251; so id. Off. 1, 26, 90; id. N. D. 2, 11, 30; Col. 2, 2, 3.

— Sometimes with quoque: Atque occidi quoque Potius quam cibum praehiberem, Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 133; so Cic. N. D. 2, 12, 32; Col. 2, 13, 3, and Cels. 2, 3; 3, 22.

— And even with quoque etiam: Atque ego quoque etiam, qui Jovis sum filius, Contagione etc., Plaut. Am. prol. 30.

— In narration: aegre submoventes obvios intrare portam, qui adducebant Philopoemenem, potuerunt: atque conferta turba iter reliquum clauserat, Liv. 39, 49; 5, 21 fin.: completur caede, quantum inter castra murosque vacui fuit: ac rursus nova laborum facies, Tac. H. 3, 30; cf. Caes. B. C. 2, 28 fin. and 2, 29 init.

— In introducing comparisons, atque ut, atque velut (mostly poet., esp. in epic poetry): Atque ut perspicio, profecto etc., Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 53: ac veluti magno in populo cum saepe coorta est Seditio.... Sic cunctus pelagi cecidit fragor, etc., Verg. A. 1, 148; so id. G. 4, 170; id. A. 2, 626; 4, 402; 4, 441; 6, 707; 9, 59; 10, 405; 10, 707; 10, 803; 11, 809; 12, 365; 12, 521; 12, 684; 12, 715; 12, 908: Inclinare meridiem Sentis ac, veluti stet volucris dies, Parcis deripere etc., Hor. C. 3, 28, 6; Val. Fl. 6, 664; and so, Ac velut in nigro jactatis turbine nautis, etc. ... Tale fuit nobis Manius auxilium, Cat. 68, 63 (for which Sillig and Muller read: Hic velut, etc.): Atque ut magnas utilitates adipiscimur, etc., Cic. Off. 2, 5, 16: Atque ut hujus mores veros amicos parere non potuerunt, sic etc., id. Lael. 15, 54.

— In connecting two acts or events. In the order of time, and then; hence the ancient grammarians assume in it the notion of quick succession, and explain it, though improperly, as syn. with statim, ilico, without any accompanying copulative, v. Gell. 10, 29; Non. p. 530, 1 sq. (only in the poets and histt.): Atque atque accedit muros Romana juventus (the repetition of the atque represents the approach step by step), Enn. ap. Gell. and Non. l. l. (Ann. v. 527 Mull.): Quo imus unā; ad prandium? Atque illi tacent, And then they are silent, Plaut. Capt. 3, 1, 19: Ubi cenamus? inquam, atque illi abnuunt, and upon this they shake their head, id. ib. 3, 1, 21; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33: dum circumspecto atque ego lembum conspicor, id. Bacch. 2, 3, 45; so id. Merc. 2, 1, 32; 2, 1, 35; id. Most. 5, 1, 9: lucernam forte oblitus fueram exstinguere: Atque ille exclamat derepente maximum, and then he suddenly exclaims, id. ib. 2, 2, 57: cui fidus Achates It comes ... atque illi Misenum in litore sicco Ut venere, vident, etc., and as they thus came, etc., Verg. A. 6, 162: dixerat, atque illi sese deus obtulit ultro, Stat. Th. 9, 481; 12, 360; Liv. 26, 39, 16; Tac. H. 3, 17: tum Otho ingredi castra ausus: atque illum tribuni centurionesque circumsistunt, id. ib. 1, 82.

—Sometimes with two imperatives, in order to indicate vividly the necessity of a quicker succession, or the close connection between two actions: cape hoc argentum atque defer, Ter. Heaut. 4, 7, 3: abi domum ac deos comprecare, id. Ad. 4, 5, 65: tace modo ac sequere hac, id. ib. 2, 4, 16: Accipe carmina atque hanc sine tempora circum hederam tibi serpere, Verg. E. 8, 12; id. G. 1, 40; 3, 65; 4, 330: Da auxilium, pater, atque haec omina firma, id. A. 2, 691; 3, 89; 3, 250; 3, 639; 4, 424; 9, 90; 10, 624; 11, 370.

— In the order of thought, and so, and thus, and therefore. Absol.: si nunc de tuo jure concessisses paululum, Atque adulescenti morigerāsses, and so, Ter. Ad. 2, 2, 10.

— With ita or sic: Ventum deinde ad multo angustiorem rupem, atque ita rectis saxis, etc., Liv. 21, 36; Plin. 10, 58, 79, § 158: ac sic prope innumerabiles species reperiuntur, Quint. 12, 10, 67.

— Connecting conclusion and condition, so, then (cf. at, II. F.): non aliter quam qui adverso vix flumine lembum Remigiis subigit, si bracchia forte remisit, Atque illum praeceps prono rapit alveus amni, Verg. G. 1, 203 (here explained by statim by Gell. 10, 29, and by Servius, but thus its connective force is wholly lost; cf. also Forbig ad h. l. for still another explanation).

— (As supra, I. c.) To annex a thought of more importance: Satisne videtur declarāsse Dionysius nihil esse ei beatum, cui semper aliqui terror impendeat? atque ei ne integrum quidem erat, ut ad justitiam remigraret, Cic. Tusc. 5, 21, 62; id. Tull. 4: hoc enim spectant leges, hoc volunt, incolumem esse civium conjunctionem, quam qui dirimunt, eos morte ... coercent. Atque hoc multo magis efficit ipsa naturae ratio, id. Off. 3, 5, 23; id. Fam. 6, 1, 4: hac spe lapsus Induciomarus ... exsules damnatosque totā Galliā magnis praemiis ad se allicere coepit; ac tantam sibi jam iis rebus in Galliā auctoritatem comparaverat, ut, etc., Caes. B. G. 5, 55 fin.; Nep. Hann. 13, 2; Quint. 1, 10, 16.

—Hence also in answers, in order to confirm a question or assertion: Sed videone ego Pamphilippum cum fratre Epignomo? Atque is est, And he it is, Yes, it is he, Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 4; so id. Truc. 1, 2, 24: Th. Mihin malum minitare? Ca. Atque edepol non minitabor, sed dabo, id. Curc. 4, 4, 15: Ch. Egon formidulosus? nemost hominum, qui vivat, minus. Th. Atque ita opust, Ter. Eun. 4, 6, 20.

— In expressing a wish, atque utinam: Veritus sum arbitros, atque utinam memet possim obliscier! Att., Trag. Rel. p. 160 Rib.: videmus enim fuisse quosdam, qui īdem ornate ac graviter, īdem versute et subtiliter dicerent. Atque utinam in Latinis talis oratoris simulacrum reperire possemus! Cic. Or. 7, 22; so id. Rep. 3, 5, 8: Atque utinam pro decore etc., Liv. 21, 41, 13: Atque utinam ex vobis unus etc., Verg. E. 10, 35; id. A. 1, 575: Atque utinam ... Ille vir in medio fiat amore lapis! Prop. 2, 9, 47; 3, 6, 15; 3, 7, 25; 3, 8, 19 al.

— To connect an adversative clause, and often fully with tamen, and yet, notwithstanding, nevertheless. Absol.: Mihi quidem hercle non fit veri simile; atque ipsis commentum placet, Ter. And. 1, 3, 20 Ruhnk. (atque pro tamen, Don.): ego quia non rediit filius, quae cogito! ... Atque ex me hic natus non est, sed ex fratre, id. Ad. 1, 1, 15 (Quasi dicat, ex me non est, et sic afficior: quid paterer si genuissem? Don.; cf. Acron. ap. Charis. p. 204 P.); Cic. Off. 3, 11, 48 Beier; id. Mur. 34, 71 Matth.: ceterum ex aliis negotiis, quae ingenio exercentur, in primis magno usui est memoria rerum gestarum ... Atque ego credo fore qui, etc., and yet I believe, Sall. J. 4, 1 and 3 Corte; id. C. 51, 35: observare principis egressum in publicum, insidere vias examina infantium futurusque populus solebat. Labor parentibus erat ostentare parvulos ... Ac plerique insitis precibus surdas principis aures obstrepebant, Plin. Pan. 26.

— With tamen: nihil praeterea est magnopere dicendum. Ac tamen, ne cui loco non videatur esse responsum, etc., Cic. Fin. 2, 27, 85: discipulos dissimilīs inter se ac tamen laudandos, id. de Or. 3, 10, 35; id. Rep. 1, 7, 12: Atque in his tamen tribus generibus etc., id. Off. 3, 33, 118; id. Pis. 1, 3; 13, 30; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16; 7, 15 fin. (cf. in reference to the last four passages Wund. Varr. Lectt. p. lviii. sq.): ac tamen initia fastigii etc., Tac. A. 3, 29; 3, 56; 12, 56; 14, 21: pauciores cum pluribus certāsse, ac tamen fusos Germanos, id. H. 5, 16.

— To connect a minor affirmative proposition (the assumptio or propositio minor of logical lang.) in syllogisms, now, but, but now (while atqui is used to connect either an affirmative or negative minor premiss: v. atqui): Scaptius quaternas postulabat. Metui, si impetrāsset, ne tu ipse me amare desineres; ... Atque hoc tempore ipso impingit mihi epistulam etc., Cic. Att. 6, 1, 6.

—Sometimes the conclusion is to be supplied: nisi qui naturas hominum, penitus perspexerit, dicendo, quod volet, perficere non poterit. Atque totus hic locus philosophorum putatur proprius (conclusion: ergo oratorem philosophiam cognoscere oportet), Cic. de Or. 1, 12, 53 and 54.

— In introducing a purpose (freq. in Cic.). A negative purpose, and esp. in anticipating an objection: Ac ne sine causā videretur edixisse, Cic. Phil. 3, 9, 24: Ac ne forte hoc magnum ac mirabile esse videatur, id. de Or. 2, 46, 191; so id. Fam. 5, 12, 30: Ac ne saepius dicendum sit, Cels. 8, 1: Ac ne forte roges, quo me duce, quo lare tuter, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 13: Ac ne forte putes, id. ib. 2, 1, 208: Ac ne forte putes etc., Ov. R. Am. 465 (Merkel, Et).

— A positive purpose: Atque ut ejus diversa studia in dissimili ratione perspicere possitis, nemo etc., Cic. Cat. 2, 5, 9: Atque ut omnes intellegant me etc. ... dico etc., id. Imp. Pomp. 8, 20; 2, 4; id. Clu. 14, 43; id. Sull. 2, 5; id. de Or. 3, 11, 40: Atque ut C. Flaminium relinquam etc., id. Leg. 3, 9, 20; id. Fin. 3, 2, 4.

— In continuing a thought in assertions or narration, and, now, and now, Plaut. Aul. prol. 18: audistis, cum pro se diceret, genus orationis, etc., ... perspexistis. Atque in eo non solum ingenium ejus videbatis, etc., Cic. Cael. 19, 45; so id. de Or. 3, 32, 130; 2, 7, 27; 3, 10, 39 al.; Caes. B. G. 2, 29; Nep. Ages. 7, 3; 8, 1, Eum. 10, 3 Bremi; Tac. A. 14, 64; 15, 3; Verg. A. 9, 1; Sil. 4, 1 al.: ac si, sublato illo, depelli a vobis omne periculum judicarem, now if I, etc., Cic. Cat. 2, 2, 3: atque si etiam hoc natura praescribit, etc., id. Off. 3, 6, 27; so Quint. 10, 1, 26; 10, 2, 8.

— In introducing parentheses: vulgo credere, Penino (atque inde nomen et jugo Alpium inditum) transgressum, Liv. 21, 38: omne adfectūs genus (atque ea maxime jucundam et ornatam faciunt orationem) de luxuriā, etc., Quint. 4, 3, 15 MSS., where Halm after Spalding reads et quae.

— At the conclusion of a discourse (not infreq. in Cic.): Atque in primis duabus dicendi partibus qualis esset, summatim breviterque descripsimus, And thus have we, then, briefly described, etc., Cic. Or. 15, 50: Ac de primo quidem officii fonte diximus, id. Off. 1, 6, 19: Ac de inferendā quidem injuriā satis dictum est, id. ib. 1, 8, 27; id. Inv. 2, 39, 115 al.

— In particular connections and phrases. Unus atque alter, one and the other; alius atque alius, one and another; now this, now that: unae atque alterae scalae, Sall. J. 60, 7: quarum (coclearum) cum unam atque alteram, dein plures peteret, id. ib. 93, 2: unum atque alterum lacum integer perfluit, Tac. H. 5, 6: dilatisque aliā atque aliā de causā comitiis, Liv. 8, 23, 17; Col. 9, 8, 10: alius atque alius, Tac. H. 1, 46; 1, 50 (v. alius, II. D.).

—Also separated by several words: aliud ejus subinde atque aliud facientes initium, Sen. Ep. 32, 2.

— Etiam atque etiam. again and again: temo Stellas cogens etiam atque etiam Noctis sublime iter, Enn., Trag. Rel. p. 39 Rib.: etiam atque etiam cogita, Ter. Eun. 1, 1, 11: etiam atque etiam considera, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 14, 46: monitos eos etiam atque etiam volo, id. Cat. 2, 12, 27.

—So, semel atque iterum, Cic. Font. 26; id. Clu. 49; Tac. Or. 17; and: iterum atque iterum, Verg. A. 8, 527; Hor. S. 1, 10, 39.

— Huc atque illuc, hither and thither, Cic. Q. Rosc. 37; id. de Or. 1, 40, 184; Verg. A. 9, 57; Ov. M. 2, 357; 10, 376; Tac. Agr. 10; id. H. 1, 85.

— Longe atque late, far and wide, Cic. Marcell. 29: atque eccum or atque eccum video, in colloquial lang.: Heus vocate huc Davom. Atque eccum, but here he is, Ter. And. 3, 3, 48: Audire vocem visa sum modo militis. Atque eccum, and here he is, id. Eun. 3, 2, 2; so id. Hec. 4, 1, 8.

— Atque omnia, in making an assertion general, and so generally: Atque in eis omnibus, quae sunt actionis, inest quaedam vis a naturā data, Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 223: quorum (verborum) descriptus ordo alias aliā terminatione concluditur, atque omnia illa et prima et media verba spectare debent ad ultimum, id. Or. 59, 200; id. de Or. 2, 64, 257: commoda civium non divellere, atque omnes aequitate eādem continere, and so rather, etc., id. Off. 2, 23, 83: nihil acerbum esse, nihil crudele, atque omnia plena clementiae, humanitatis, id. ad Q. Fr. 1, 1, 8: Atque omnis vitae ratio sic constat, ut, quae probamus in aliis, facere ipsi velimus, Quint. 10, 2, 2.

— With other conjunctions. After et: equidem putabam virtutem hominibus instituendo et persuadendo, non minis et vi ac metu tradi, Cic. de Or. 1, 58, 247: Magnifica vero vox et magno viro ac sapiente digna, id. Off. 3, 1, 1; id. Cael. 13: vanus aspectus et auri fulgor atque argenti, Tac. Agr. 32.: denuntiarent, ut ab Saguntinis abstineret et Carthaginem in Africam traicerent ac sociorum querimonias deferrent, Liv. 21, 6, 4: ubi et fratrem consilii ac periculi socium haberem, id. 21, 41, 2: et uti liter demum ac Latine perspicueque, Quint. 8, 3, 3: Nam et subtili plenius aliquid atque subtilius et vehementi remissius atque vehementius invenitur, id. 12, 10, 67.

— After que, as in Gr. τὲ καί: litterisque ac laudibus aeternare, Varr. ap. Non. p. 75, 20: submoverique atque in castra redigi, Liv. 26, 10: terrorem caedemque ac fugam fecere, id. 21, 52: mus Sub terris posuitque domos atque horrea fecit, Verg. G. 1, 182; 3, 434; id. A. 8, 486.

— Before et: caelum ipsum ac mare et silvas circum spectantes, Tac. Agr. 32.

— After neque (only in the poets and post - Aug. prose): nec clavis nec canis atque calix, Mart. 1, 32, 4: naturam Oceani atque aestūs neque quaerere hujus operis est, ac multi retulere, Tac. Agr. 10: mediocritatem pristinam neque dissimulavit umquam ac frequenter etiam prae se tulit, Suet. Vesp. 12.

— Atque repeated, esp. in arch. Lat.: Scio solere plerisque hominibus in rebus secundis atque prolixis atque prosperis animum excellere atque superbiam atque ferociam augescere atque crescere, Cato ap. Gell. 7, 3: Dicere possum quibus villae atque aedes aedificatae atque expolitae maximo opere citro atque ebore atque pavimentis Poenicis stent, Cato ap. Fest. p. 242 Mull.: atque ut C. Flamininum atque ea, quae jam prisca videntur, propter vetustatem relinquam, Cic. Leg. 3, 9, 20: omnem dignitatem tuam in virtute atque in rebus gestis atque in tuā gravitate positam existimare, id. Fam. 1, 5, 8.

—Esp. freq. in enumerations in the poets: Haec atque illa dies atque alia atque alia, Cat. 68, 152: Mavortia tellus Atque Getae atque Hebrus, Verg. G. 4, 463: Clioque et Beroe atque Ephyre Atque Opis et Asia, id. ib. 4, 343.

—And sometimes forming a double connective, both

— and = et

—et: Multus ut in terras deplueretque lapis: Atque tubas atque arma ferunt crepitantia caelo Audita, Tib. 2, 5, 73: complexa sui corpus miserabile nati Atque deos atque astra vocat crudelia mater, Verg. E. 5, 23; Sil. 1, 93; v. Forbig ad Verg. l. l.!*? Atque regularly stands at the beginning of its sentence or clause or before the word it connects, but in poetry it sometimes, like et and at, stands: In the second place: Jamque novum terrae stupeant lucescere solem, Altius atque cadant imbres, Verg. E. 6, 38 Rib., ubi v. Forbig.: Accipite ergo animis atque haec mea figite dicta, id. A. 3, 250, and 10, 104 (animis may, however, here be taken with Accipite, as in id. ib. 5, 304): Esto beata, funus atque imagines Ducant triumphales tuum, Hor. Epod. 8, 11; id. S. 1, 5, 4; 1, 6, 111; 1, 7, 12 (ubi v. Fritzsche).

— In the third place: quod pubes hederā virente Gaudeant pullā magis atque myrto, Hor. C. 1, 25, 18; cf. at fin. (Vid. more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 452-513.)
 
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