Definition of acer
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Orthography ID = 2000522
1.
LNS
ācer, ācris, ācre
ἀκίς, ἀκών, άκμή, ἄκρος, ὠκύς, ὀξύς
adjective (3rd 3-termination)
  1. sharp, pointed, piercing
  2. sharp, dazzling, stinging, pungent, fine, piercing
  3. violent, sharp, severe, gnawing
  4. violent, vehement, passionate, consuming
  5. subtle, acute, penetrating, sagacious, shrewd
  6. active, ardent, eager, spirited, brave, zealous
Abbreviations
ācer, cris, cre, adj. (m. acris, Enn.; f. acer, Naev. and Enn.; acrus, a um, Pall.; Veg.; cf. Charis. 63 and 93 P.) [cf. ἀκίς, ἀκών, άκμή, ἄκρος, ὠκύς, ὀξύς; Sanscr. acan = dart, acus = swift; Germ. Ecke; Engl. edge, to egg; and with change of quantity, acus, acuo, aceo, acies, acerbus], sharp, pointed, piercing, and the like. Prop., of the senses and things affecting them, sharp, dazzling, stinging, pungent, fine, piercing: praestans valetudine, viribus, formā, acerrimis integerrimisque sensibus, Cic. Tusc. 5, 15, 45. So, Of the sight: acerrimus sensus videndi, Cic. de Or. 2, 87, 357: acres oculi, id. Planc. 27: splendor, Lucr. 4, 304: quidam colores ruboris acerrimi, Sen. Q. N. 1, 14 al.

— Of the hearing: voce increpet acri? Lucr. 3, 953: aurium mensura, quod est acrius judicium et certius, Cic. de Or. 3, 47: acrem flammae sonitum, Verg. G. 4, 409: acri tibiā, Hor. C. 1, 12, 1.

— Of smell, Lucr. 4, 122: exstinctum lumen acri nidore offendit nares, id. 6, 792; cf. ib. 1216: unguentis minus diu delectemur summa et acerrima suavitate conditis, quam his moderatis, Cic. de Or. 3, 25, 99: odor, Plin. 12, 17, 40.

— Of taste: ut vitet acria, ut est sinapi, cepa, allium, Var. ap. Non. 201, 13: acres humores, sharp juices, Cic. N. D. 2, 23: lactuca innatat acri stomacho, an acid stomach, Hor. S. 2, 4, 59; cf. ib. 2, 8, 7: dulcibus cibis acres acutosque miscere, Plin. Ep. 7, 3 al.

— Of sensation in its widest extent: aestatem auctumnus sequitur, post acer hiems fit, sharp, severe, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 647 P. (Ann. v. 406 ed. Vahl.

—cf. Lucr. 3, 20; 4, 261); and so Hor.: solvitur acris hiems, C. 1. 4, 1.

— Of the internal states of the human system, violent, sharp, severe, gnawing: fames, Naev. ap. Prisc. l. l. (B. Punic. p. 18 ed. Vahl.): somnus, Enn. ap. Prisc. l. l. (Ann. v. 369): morbus, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 119: dolor, Lucr. 6, 650: sitis, Tib. 1, 3, 77 al. Of the states of mind: violent, vehement, passionate, consuming: mors amici subigit, quae mihi est senium multo acerrimum, Att. ap. Non. 2, 22: acri ira percitus, Lucr. 5, 400: cf. 3, 312; 6, 754 (on the contrary, 5, 1194: iras acerbas): acres curae, Lucr. 3, 463, and Var. ap. Non. 241: luctus, ib. 87: dolor, Verg. A. 7, 291: metus, Lucr. 6, 1211; Verg. A. 1, 362: amor, Tib. 2, 6, 15: acrior ad Venerem cupido, Curt. 6, 5 al. (Among unpleasant sensations, acer designates a piercing, wounding by sharpness; but acerbus the rough, harsh, repugnant, repulsive.)

— Applied to the intellectual qualities, subtle, acute, penetrating, sagacious, shrewd: acrem irritat virtutem animi, Lucr. 1, 70: acri judicio perpende, id. 2, 1041: memoria, strong, retentive, Cic. de Or. 2, 87: vir acri ingenio, id. Or. 5; cf. id. Sest. 20 al.

— Applied to moral qualities. In a good sense, active, ardent, eager, spirited, brave, zealous: milites, Cic. Cat. 2, 10: civis acerrimus, an ardent patriot, id. Fam. 10, 28: defensor, id. ib. 1, 1: studio acriore esse, id. de Or. 1, 21: jam tum acer curas venientem extendit in annum rusticus, Verg. G. 2, 405 al.

— In a bad sense, violent, hasty, hot, passionate, fierce, severe (very freq.): uxor acerrima, enraged, angry, Plaut. Merc. 4, 4, 56; Ter. Ph. 2, 1, 32: dominos acres, Lucr. 6, 63; Nep. Tim. 3, 5; cf. Bremi Nep. Eum. 11, 1. Also, of animals, Lucr. 4, 421; 5, 860; Verg. A. 4, 156; Hor. Epod. 12, 6; 2, 31; Nep. Eum. 11, 1.

— Of abstract things (mostly poet.), Ter. Ph. 2, 2, 32: egestas, Lucr. 3, 65: poenas, id. 6, 72: impetus, ib. 128; 392: acerrimum bellum, Cic. Balb. 6: nox acerrima atque acerbissima, id. Sull. 18: acrius supplicium, id. Cat. 1, 1; in Quint.: acres syllabae, which proceed from short to long, 9, 4.

—Acer is constr. with abl., and also (esp. in the histt. of the silv. age) with gen., Vell. 1, 13; Tac. H. 2, 5 al.; cf. Ramsh. § 107, 6 note. With in, Cic. Fam. 8, 15; with inf., Sil. 3, 338.

—Adv.: ācriter, sharply, strongly, vehemently, eagerly, zealously, etc., in all the signif. of the adj., Plaut. Cist. 1, 1, 110; id. Ps. 1, 3, 39; Lucr. 6, 783; Cic. Tusc. 1, 30 al.

—Comp., Lucr. 3, 54; 5, 1147; Hor. S. 2, 3, 92; Tac. A. 6, 45; 13, 3.

—Sup., Cic. Fl. 11; id. Fam. 10, 28; 15, 4.

—Also, ācre, Sall. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 132, 25; App. M. 10, 32; and perh. Pers. 4, 34.
 
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